Mikel Delgado, CCBC on August 05, 2013
How do our cats recognize us (if they do!)? Most likely, they use multiple cues – our appearance, our scent, our mannerisms, and likely, our voices. Some scientists recently examined whether cats can recognize us by one cue alone – the sound of our voices calling their names (Saito & Shinozuka, 2013)
The study has generated a fair amount of attention, and some misleading (or just ridiculous) headlines, such as:
- Your cat is only PRETENDING to ignore you: How cats can understand their owners’ voices but play dumb as a form of survival
- Researchers: Cats Recognize and React to Owner’s Voice (When They Feel Like it)
- Cats showcase facial and voice recognition of their owners
- Study: Cats may not be as aloof as they seem
- Asshole Cats Acknowledge Your Existence in Imperceptible Ways
Note that most of these headlines play into the stereotype of cats as aloof, independent and well, just jerky (something I think most cat owners would argue is not exactly…errr…accurate). So what exactly did the researchers do and find? Do you agree with their conclusions? Or those of the media?
Twenty cats participated in the study. Each session had five trials. The experimenters played the sounds of three strangers calling a subject cat’s name in a manner similar to the owner, matching for sex, tone and other phonological elements (trials 1-3). Then they played a recording of the owner calling the cat’s name (trial 4), and lastly, played the sound of a final stranger calling to the cat (trial 5). The expectation was that cats would habituate (show less responding) to the sound of their name as the three strangers called their name, but if they could recognize their owner’s voice, they would show increased responding on that fourth trial.
The experimenters videotaped the cats during the presentation of the sounds, later coding for behaviors such as ear movement, pupil dilation and vocalization and magnitude of the cat’s response. Head and ear movements were the most common responses of cats to hearing their names called by their owners.
Fifteen of the 20 cats showed habituation to having their name called by three different strangers. Habituation is a decrease in responding to repeated presentation of a stimulus (Domjan, 2009). The five cats who did not habituate were dropped from the rest of the analysis. Results showed that cats who “habituated” were likely to show less responding at the third strangers call, and that their responding increased when they heard their owner’s voice. However, response did not decrease on the fifth trial, to the sound of the fourth strangers’ voice.
So are you convinced that cats recognize their owner’s voices? There are some potential issues with the study that leave me less than completely bowled over. A typical habituation experiment repeats the same stimulus until the subject (human or animal) stops (or significantly reduces) responding. Perhaps the effects could have been easier to find if the calls were not each from different people. In this experiment, since each trial had a different voice, there may have been some “dishabituation” on every trial due to the fact that every stimulus was actually different. Since 25% of the cats in the study did not habituate, it may have been more effective to increase the number of habituation trials before testing the cats.
The actual number of behaviors observed was very small – the cats showed an average of one or so behaviors in response to the third voice (indicating habituation) but only an average of around 1.5 behaviors in response to their owner. This was also less responding than on the first trial, which averaged two behavioral responses. While the difference between the responses on the third trial and responding to the owner’s voice was statistically significant, in that it showed a higher level of responding than expected by chance to the owner compared to the third stranger, I will let readers decide whether they feel this is a strong demonstration of owner recognition.
Given the low number of behaviors demonstrated by cats in general, the experiment could have also included a baseline condition to see the normal level of these behaviors in cats (ear twitching, head movement) in the absence of any auditory stimulus. Perhaps cats already perform these behaviors at around the same rate (1-2 behaviors) without having their name called.
Finally, I would suggest that there may be better or other measures of responding to human voices. Other studies have used approach (to speakers when a sound is projected) as a measure of response to auditory cues.
The authors concluded that the cats responded to their owner’s voice, although only through orienting behaviors (and not via vocalization or other body movements). They said this contrasted with dogs, because dogs understand social cues including pointing gestures and facial expressions. My main problems with this conclusion are that the experimenters didn’t examine either of those behaviors in this study, so it seems erroneous to include that in their conclusion; and researchers have already found that cats can use human points to find hidden food (Miklosi, Pongracz, Lakatos, Topal, & Csanyi, 2005). They then conclude that there are differences in the human-pet relationships of cats and dogs, and ground this in the framework of cats’ self-domestication.
The media conclusions are a bit concerning – the study did not examine facial recognition (“Cats showcase facial and voice recognition of their owners”), and “playing dumb as a form of survival” was not addressed, aside from noting that cats have not been domesticated to “take orders” from humans, unlike dogs. This demonstrates the importance of going to the source literature whenever possible (even if you’re reading my blog posts).
While this study is far from perfect, it does contribute to the current (and greatly lacking) area of study on cat-human relationships and social cognition in domesticated cats. I’d love to see more research on cat-human interactions, looking at other modalities of recognition and response. It does demonstrate some support that our voices are just one of the possible ways that our cats recognize and become attached to us.
Domjan, M. P. (2009). Principles of learning and behavior. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Miklosi, A., Pongracz, P., Lakatos, G., Topal, J., & Csanyi, V. (2005). A comparative study of the use of visual communicative signals in interactions between dogs (Canis familiaris) and humans and cats (Felis catus) and humans. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 119(2), 179-186. doi: 10.1037/0735-7036.119.2.179
Saito, A., & Shinozuka, K. (2013). Vocal recognition of owners by domestic cats (Felis catus). Animal Cognition, 16(4), 685-690. doi: 10.1007/s10071-013-0620-4
Ingrid Johnson on July 29, 2013
Welcome to Part Three of an informative series on the fantastic feline senses and how these innate behaviors can present as behavior challenges in the home environment. If you are just joining the discussion please refer to Parts One and Two of the series.
Cats have an innate need to climb and seek refuge up high. Cats are the most three dimensional species with which we share our homes. They typically feel most secure when they can view their world from a place of concealment and gain control over their environment from a single vantage point. This can pose a nuisance to clients who either do not realize this need or want to fight this natural instinct. Giving cats an appropriate place to seek height is the best and easiest way to control this natural behavior. If acceptable outlets are not provided, the cat will find one. Locations may include the top of the refrigerator, kitchen cabinets, entertainment center or closet shelf. If these are places you would rather your cat not frequent than you must provide a cat condo, cat tree or a bed up high in a location that you can tolerate. Much like the need to scratch and groom, the safety and comfort of vertical space is a trait that must be accepted and appropriately provided for rather than unrealistic attempts to control or cease it entirely.
Normal hunting behaviors and a cat’s normal predatory nature is a species specific component that factors into a cat’s internal clock and potential interest in the provided toys. Cats are crepuscular, which means they are most active at dawn and dusk. This is an essential feline trait as much of their prey is also active during these hours. This can cause problems in some homes as many clients’ schedules conflict with this routine. At a time when most families are sleeping in the morning or just winding down their day in the evening is when the cats are saying “hey, let’s play now!”
Predators like to chase and hunt most anything that moves. Human directed aggression is another example of how the cats’ need to hunt and perform normal behaviors can manifest as a behavior problem. This is particularly true of poorly socialized single kittens, kittens that were not among their peers for appropriate sparring, and cats that were taught that biting hands and chasing feet is a game. This is a common behavioral challenge that requires understanding of normal feline behavior to successfully overcome. Prevention is the best option, so never ever play with your hands with your cat as this behavior problem is learned directly from humans!
Additionally, cats are prey specific. They will typically hunt the exact same species of mouse or bird that their mother taught them to hunt. This particularity can make it a challenge to find just the right toy for your cat. Many clients end up spending money on toys their cat has no interest in. Proper toy selection is a necessary part of successful playtime with your cat. During this time of trial and error I encourage patience, and suggest that toys that are of little interest are never a waste as most people have friends, family, or a local shelter who would welcome the donation.
This prey preference also reminds us that we do not need to offer every flavor of food under the sun. We humans tend to anthropomorphize and think that our pets want and need variety the same way our human palate craves variety. In fact, they do not. Stick with one or two of your cat’s favorite flavors of food and you are good to go! This will also leave you with something to offer if your cat ever gets sick and you need to offer something new and exciting to tempt their appetite. And while we are on the predator and food preferences topic it is important to state here that cats would rather starve than eat an unacceptable meal. They are not scavengers, but rather stealth hunters. They prefer a fresh kill, and do not typically eat cold, dead prey. So if you have noticed your cat does not want cold food from the refrigerator, this is why! Dogs are very different in this regard!
Masters of Disguise
While this aspect may seem a bit more medical than behavioral I feel it is important to touch on here. Cats are amazing at masking their illnesses. Again, reiterating that they are a species that is both predator and prey, it is imperative that they do not show weakness in the wild. This instinct still carries over to our beloved pampered pets and owners so often miss the subtle signs of sickness. Since cats are also extremely diligent in their routines, I often stress to clients to keep in their observations their cat’s daily repertoire. The day they do not come for their canned food breakfast or neglects to meet you at the door like clockwork could be the very first clue that the cat wasn’t feeling well. I often compare how tough cats are to their canine counterparts. A dog with a broken leg will limp and whine and appear quite challenged; a cat with a broken leg will run on it! They hide so much and it is our responsibility to be the best cat parents we can be and that means keeping a watchful eye and remaining observant.
Any change in behavior can be a sign of a medical problem. Here are a few signs to watch for:
- Increased or decreased thirst
- Increased of decrease elimination (urine or feces)
- Increased or decreased appetite
- Excessive vocalization
- Changes in favorite sleeping/hiding spots
- Increased vomiting or soft stool
- Elimination outside of the litter box (urine or feces)
- Lack of interest in play and normal interaction
I hope you have enjoyed our three part series on some of the most common species specific behaviors and how they can present as behavior challenges in the home. If you are experiencing any of these problems with your cat and would like more specific advice to resolve your problem please fill out the behavior questionnaire on this website for a personalized in-home consultation.
Ingrid Johnson on July 22, 2013
This post is Part Two in an informative series on the fantastic feline senses. If you are just joining this discussion please refer to Part One for an introduction. The following are additional feline specific behaviors and an explanation of how their senses can conflict with the very human world that we expect for cats to comply to. I hope you find this information helpful, enlightening and potentially life changing, to better help you to be able to meet your cats need in your home environment.
Marking the ownership of an object or place can be done by using a combination of several skin glands. Much of this type of communication goes on unbeknownst to humans as they are incapable of detecting the scent deposited. Alternatively, cats seem to be able to locate areas that have been “rub marked” quite easily, indicating that these odors are quite fragrant to the sensitive feline nose.
One particular way that this correlates with behavior challenges is in the introduction of a new cat to the home, or a cat returning home after having been removed temporarily. When cats live in groups they form a colony scent. When one is new to the group or recently reintroduced achieving a neutral, or colony odor, is important in the acceptance of that incoming cat. Scent exchange is a huge component and unfortunately over-looked factor in creating a harmonious relationship among cats. I find this important feline communication tool is missed by humans because we are so inferior in the scent world.
Visual and Vocal Displays
Even though cats are social, they are still solitary hunters. It is not to a cats benefit to get into physical confrontation with another cat and become injured to the extent that they cannot hunt or defend themselves. To this point, cats perform a myriad of physical body postures and vocalizations to get their opponent to back off so that a cat fight is avoided. Many clients have a hard time understanding these concepts and will misinterpret the meanings.
Cats scream/shriek/yowl as if each individual strand of hair is being plucked out one at a time when trying to get an opponent to back off. Many clients will race to the noise in complete distress thinking their cats are engaged in a terrible fight only to find them at a standoff three feet apart. Now, certainly there is still a conflict issue that needs to be addressed here, but so many times the cats are not physically engaged in a brawl, but rather displaying as if they are about to fight. The goal of this sound is designed to convey the size and strength of the individual emitting them. Or in other words, “please back down, I do not want to have to fight with you; this is your final warning!”
Unfortunately, the ear piercing shriek is also a sound sometimes heard in the exam room at the vet’s office if a cat is terribly frightened and does not want to be touched. The purpose of these loud shrieks is the feline equivalent of “please don’t touch me or I’ll really have to show you what I can do!” The sheer abruptness and volume of this sound is likely designed to startle the aggressor or in this case, the veterinary staff, and get them to loosen their grip.
Feline hearing, once again, is far superior compared to many other mammals, especially humans. This sensitivity is vital to survival for the use of detecting their prey as well as potential threats. Domestic cats need to be desensitized to sound early in life as this heightened sense could lead to a noise phobic animal if not given proper exposure.
The ability to purr is another audible sound made by the cat which can be experiencing either pleasure or pain. It has been hypothesized that purring can function as a manipulative tool to solicit contact or care from another cat or human. Some have even speculated that it is possible for the vibrations of the purr to help aid in the healing of the body when ill. It is nonetheless a comfort behavior that is exclusive to the cat.
Grooming is another essential feline survival skill. Grooming habits are hardwired into this species and start young. Cat fetuses have even been observed wiping their paws against their mouth in the womb. Cats spend about one sixth of their life grooming themselves. They need to clean themselves after consuming their kill because they need to eliminate the scent and blood from their body so as to not alert future prey of their presence. Grooming also helps with coat maintenance which helps maintain body temperature. A healthy coat can insulate or help keep the animal cool, an unhealthy coat cannot properly serve either function. As cats groom themselves and deposit saliva on each strand of fur, that saliva evaporates helping wick heat from the body. Alternatively, a balled up, matted coat cannot allow the many layers of fur to aid in keeping the animal warm. A healthy coat is important for survival in the cat. While not entirely behavioral, not wanting to groom is a behavioral change seen in sick cats and should serve as a red flag to owners that their cat could be ill.
Stay tuned for more species specific behaviors explained coming soon in Part Three!
Ingrid Johnson on July 15, 2013
The domestication of the cat has increased its need for communication and signaling. The domestic cat is no longer an exclusively solitary species as it now lives close together with other animals and humans, benefits from cooperation, and needs to resolve conflict without physical confrontation. For the purpose of self-preservation cats perform a number of species-specific behaviors that can contribute to behavior challenges in the home environment. Their predatory behavior can present as play and aggression concerns, feline elimination preferences can present in litter box and marking challenges, and their superior senses can become overwhelmed in our human world presenting problems owners have a hard time grasping and relating to.
The seemingly secret world of feline communication involves olfactory (scent), auditory (hearing), visual (sight), and tactile (touch) communication. Scent signaling between cats is a vital means of communicating. For these well equipped carnivores scent signaling can help avoid what could become a dangerous encounter with a rival. Relying so heavily on scent communication, however, can also result in miscommunication and an inability to control the information conveyed. The following is a brief synopsis of some basic feline communication techniques and the correlating challenges they can pose in the home environment.
Scratching is a normal feline behavior that serves as a communication tool between cats. It is also a topic discussed with virtually every behavior consultation. Cats scratch to scent mark, visually mark, groom their nails and because it feels good. Cats tend to scratch in higher traffic areas rather than the perimeter of their home range and scratch the same chosen item over and over again. This acts as a clear visual marker which in turn draws attention to the scent deposited. This instinctual marking behavior factors into every behavioral discussion as it is commonly a behavior that owners want to appropriately direct or unrealistically cease. The latter is not possible. Even declawed cats perform the act of “scratching.” Helping clients understand why this behavior occurs and how to encourage the cat to use an appropriate scratching post is key. A cat’s natural desire to scratch in regularly used routes is precisely why scratching posts are often not used when they are placed in a corner of the basement where the cat never frequents.
Urine Marking (spraying)
Urine spraying is a complex and poorly understood feline marking behavior. Unfortunately it is also under researched, so exact interpretation of the messages left behind by urine spray is speculative. It can be exhibited by a cat of either sex regardless of neutering status, but is most common in unneutered males. It is suggested that cats can use urine as a passive aggressive behavior to avoid conflict with other rival cats. Urine marking is often done around the perimeters of a cats “home-range.” While the territorial function of urine marking is unclear, it is common when a new cat enters an existing cat’s space for the perimeters of that space to be urine marked. The marking could be done by the existing cat, the new cat, or both. It is also speculated that cats use urine marking to assist in the “time-sharing” of resources such as when hunting in a field. Prior to entering a field to engage in the hunt, a cat may spray to let another cat know that particular area is a currently occupied hunting ground.
Regardless of intent, urine marking is an all too common problem in many homes that house cats, particularly multiple cats. The interest in the deposited urine spray is intently investigated by all cats encountering it which suggests that the information left behind is of great importance. Traditional sniffing is typically followed by a Flehmen response. Flehmen is probably one of the most species specific behaviors that could be mentioned here, while it is not exclusive to cats, it is often discussed as if it were a feline exclusive behavior and seems to be most well known in the cat. Flehmen is usually performed in response to scents deposited by other cats, most commonly urine. During the Flehmen response the cat opens its mouth and moves its tongue back and forth across the roof of the mouth right behind the incisor teeth where the ducts to the vomeronasal organ are located. It is presumed that the vomeronasal organ gathers and possibly stores social information.
Helping families cope with urine marking and understanding the many reasons it may be occurring in their home with their particular cats is important in my role as a behavior consultant. While the precise messages left behind by sprayed urine are still yet to be translated (into human!), acquiring an understanding of this normal feline behavior is essential when experiencing an elimination problem.
The use of a loose substrate with which the cat can dig in, eliminate and then cover is another species specific preference in the cat. What many people do not realize is all of the particulars that can correlate with elimination preferences. For example, most cats prefer to urinate in one location and defecate in a completely different location. Sometimes even a different substrate is preferred for a bowel movement versus urination. This is certainly a topic of discussions with every behavior consult, but especially in homes with too few litter boxes or when the litter boxes provided are all in one room. An inappropriate elimination problem is often the result of too few places to eliminate so the cat will simply choose a place in the house that seems acceptable to them. Adding an additional box or two can quickly resolve such issues.
Because cats are a species that is both predator and prey and because the act of eliminating is one of their most vulnerable moments, litter boxes must allow the cat to feel safe while using them. This is precisely why hooded litter boxes, automatic litter boxes, and boxes placed in dark, dank, dead end areas are found to be unappealing and even frightening to a cat. Most cats prefer to eliminate in a location that allows them to visually see if a predator or even a rambunctious littermate is about to approach and attack. If given the choice a cat would rather eliminate in the middle of a vegetable garden and be able to see all around them versus using a cave-like environment. This usually helps provide a visual aid one can relate to. This is also why so many of the litter boxes on the market today do not appeal to cats. They are too small, often covered, or have some sort of gadget or contraption that makes noise, moves or does some other scary thing a cat would rather not experience while eliminating. Stressing the importance of these feline specific preferences is key to preventing a problem before it starts!
Stay tuned for more species specific behaviors explained coming soon in Part Two!
Jane Ehrlich on June 24, 2013
I was the only feline behavior consultant attending this year's American Animal Hospital Association conference, as far as I knew. I wasn't a vet, nor a tech.
After the four days, I left with a notebook of interesting bits I could pass on to my clients, yes, but also confirmation
that feline behavior was still low on the vet's priority list. The "feline track" was small compared to the
one for dogs.
Even a talk on fear and aggression handling for clinic staff was 90% dog. (The lecturer, a vet-behaviorist, admitted
there was "too little known about cats.")
One of the biggest names in veterinary medicine, Niels Pedersen, who wrote the book on feline infectious diseases,
told me there, "Behavior? It's either sex or stress. If it's sex, castrate 'em. Stress? Drug 'em."
Oh, well that's all right, then. It's a common attitude.
After speakers' talks on non-medical feline matters, at several conferences, I asked the same question:
How can we get more vets to use behavior consultants?.
Nobody had answers. In true displacement gesturing, I (metaphorically) scratch my head in frustration.
Story thus far: many vets ain't very interested.
Vets prefer dogs. According to Dr. Elizabeth Colleran, spokeswoman for the excellent "Cat Friendly Clinic
Guidelines", only 17% of vets even prefer cats. (48% prefer dogs). Cats being most popular domestic pet in the US,
it would be financially viable to consider a more cat-seductive practice, yet almost half aren't interested in adopting
even those Guidelines for their clinics.
In an admittedly unscientific survey, I asked 31 vets at the AAHA conference if they used cat behavior consultants.
Twenty-nine said they didn't. I've asked many vets here in Arizona that question. The vast majority said no.
Why not? Many explained, "We don't think about it." Several admitted they didn't know any.
A few said, "I can handle that sort of thing."
Perhaps. Perhaps not.
Fact: most cats are dumped at shelters—and killed—or just plain dumped, because of behavior issues, not medical ones.
You could be hard-pressed, looking for "feline behavior" as part of DVM curricula. Most vets have admitted
they'd gotten "one or two lectures" in their three-year program. No classes in feline behavior,
but perhaps one or two in animal behavior. An online look at what some of the major vet programs offer:
some prominent universities have behavior clinics; however, there is only one general animal behavior course in its
three-year program, and it's an elective. Another has three courses, two of which are elective.
(They have a course every year in raptors, swine and goats.) "No book required nor recommended."
A third has one elective course, two others have none, although, again, they have their own behavior clinics.
How much of these courses cover, specifically, feline behavior? Department spokespeople: "We don't know, but
if the professor is covering dogs, horses, and other animals, it would be little."
The assumption is, you can learn more in graduate and postgraduate work; after the DVM has been achieved.
(The American College of Vet Behaviorists has a respected program for vets, as one example.)
There is no feline behavior journal . No feline behavior lecture at the American Board of Vet Practitioners conference
in the Fall, nor at other conferences coming up this year.
The vets who feel they don't need a behavior consultant would benefit greatly not only for their clients, their
clients' cats, but for their clinic credibility, if they change their minds. ( The others can find a good list
from the AAFP, IAABC or other organizations.) My clients tell me that when they mention their cat's problems to
the doctor; on soiling inappropriately, for example, they get general advice: "Change litter. Clean around the box
with an enzymatic cleaner, or move it.", without understanding the reason behind the issue. Is it due to box issues
or stress or hormonal issues, if there's no medical cause? Makes a difference in terms of treatment. Aggression
toward other house pets? "Drug him or remove him" is often the offered answer. Or Feliway. Sometimes the
honest vet explains that s/he doesn't know.
Good behavior consultants understand cats' issues that exasperate the owner. They know how to help and advise through
protocols and suggestions, learned through years of personal and clinical experience. They can answer questions and
solve issues that many vets can't.
Spraying, soiling, scratching, avoidance, aggression toward people or pets…the reasons behind such behavior,
the triggers involved, learning about as much background as is possible, learning the home and outside layouts,
relationships between cat and owners, family, more. Habituation, desensitization, types of learning and conditioning,
taking a thorough history&ellips;it's not just a matter of reading books. Strong experience in reputable institutions
can replace academic training, if that's all there was…if there was so little.
TV programs and web blogs about cats (excluding the cute picture-laden ones) have never been so hugely popular as
they are now. Sure, there are good tips on the internet, but there's also a lot of simply wrong advice.
(Still reading about using vinegar to clean boxes? Pushing the cat's head down onto the urinated-upon surface? Amazing.)
No blog, website or column can solve every case; how many cats are "relinquished" because a net tip didn't
solve the problem? If a vet couldn't solve a behavior problem, are cats dumped, too?
A jazzy site and a claim to be "an expert" isn't enough. One so-called "professional animal
behavior association" outside the US isn't even credible among true experts, from my understanding. Sure,
homework is needed, as it would be for any profession.
I never pretend to be a vet, but recommend the client check with the vet first, to rule out possible underlying medical
issues. That vet should also be able to recommend a good behavior consultant if the cat is physically healthy. People should
examine the background of any professional who's considered. Those certified in animal behavior should have a lot of
experience in specifically feline issues. There are also superb, renowned behavior consultants who are not certified, but have had
enormous wealth of experience, written for good journals, participated in major projects and programs sponsored by
Until recently, one couldn't get certified in feline behavior; IAABC, thankfully, offers that, now. I hope this is
a sign of more to come, that feline behavior is taken every bit as seriously as canine and equine.
Vets, vet-behaviorists and behavior consultants need to share. We could learn so much from each other. After all, we're
doing it for the cats, not for our own egos.
Ingrid Johnson, CCBC on March 24, 2013
Osteoarthritis is defined as inflammation of the joint lining and deterioration of the cartilage. Arthritis is a painful condition that should always be
taken seriously. Almost all senior cats have some degree of arthritic changes. In fact, studies have shown that cats start developing microscopic arthritic
changes around 10-12 years of age. Treatment for arthritis is most effective if started early before obvious signs of the condition occur.
How will you know if your cat is arthritic? Well, take into account a few obvious precursors:
Is your cat overweight?
Is your cat over 10 years of age?
Is your cat handicapped in anyway (i.e. a tripod)?
Is your cat de-clawed?
If you answered yes to any of these questions then starting treatment earlier rather than later would be to your cats benefit. Just like people if your cat
has suffered an injury, is handicapable, or has been overweight most of their life then they are more likely to suffer joint pain sooner. Rainy days and
cold weather cause flare ups in arthritic symptoms in animals just like in people. It is important to ask your veterinarian what type of supportive care
they would recommend.
There are other signs that your cat may be suffering from arthritis. For example, have you suddenly noticed they haven’t jumped up onto the counter top in
a while? Do not be fooled! Your cat may still get on the counter, but remember cats are the masters of disguise and excellent at masking any symptoms of
illness. They may simply be taking the path of least resistance to access the counter. When was the last time you saw them jump directly from the floor to
the countertop without using a chair, stool, table etc. to aid them?
Other signs include:
Difficulty climbing the stairs or jumping onto the bed or sofa:
if your kitty used to fly up the stairs and launch onto the bed and no longer does so that could be an early sign. It is not that they are just “getting
old”, there are physical changes slowing these behaviors as well.
Heat seeking behavior such as lying on heat vents and sunny locations:
providing warmth is actually a great recommended treatment for arthritis support so provide access to sunny spots; heating pads, snuggle safes, thermal
heated cat cushions, and the like.
think about how difficult and tiring it can be to walk on the beach. Posturing in cat litter every time your cat has to go to the bathroom can be extremely
difficult when their hips, knees, and elbows don’t work like they used to. Sometimes we have to provide less litter depth or a puppy pad for arthritic cats
to help set them up to succeed in their litter box. Having more targets available is also helpful. More litter boxes ensures they always have a clean place
to go. If they have a hard time navigating in the box they could accidentally step on a soiled area creating litter box avoidance; since cats are
fastidiously clean animals and do not want to become soiled in the process of eliminating. After all, the carpet is always clean and is a nice stable
surface that doesn’t move out from under their feet!
Changes in grooming habits:
cats get matted along their hips, back, and hind quarters when they are too arthritic to groom. If they are too obese to reach these areas and arthritic on
top of that, now we have two challenges to overcome. Arthritic senior cats need regular combing and brushing to maintain their coats and if they are not on
anything to help with their discomfort the grooming process can be a painful one. If your cat is extremely matted you may need the help of a professional
groomer to gain a fresh start. Your groomer should be able to teach you what tools to use to continue to maintain your cat’s coat, but you still may need
professional help from time to time. Shaving your cat into a lioncut can be very helpful and more comfortable for them then combing in their senior years.
some arthritic cats are so very painful that they are quite irritable and exhibit pain induced aggression or petting intolerance. These kitties really need
some help. They may also have matted hair coats compounding the pain as matted hair alone can be uncomfortable to the skin and sensation of touch. If
beneath that their joints also hurt, you may have a very irritable kitty on your hands.
As you can see, arthritis can result in some significant changes in behavior and daily routine for your cat. So what do you do? Ask your veterinarian!
There are a wide variety of products on the market now. There are glucosamine and chondroitin products for cats, these come in the form of treats or
capsules depending on how agreeable your cat is to being medicated. There are also prescription mobility diets specifically formulated to be high in Omega
3 fatty acids, this is a very easy way to provide your senior cat with some arthritis relief! Antioxidants and Omega 3’s are also great supplements for
senior cats for many reasons more than just joint support. Lastly, if your kitty is severely affected pain control may be prescribed and there are a few
different forms your veterinarian may recommend depending on the degree of discomfort your cat is experiencing.
Remember that with a cat any change of behavior can be a sign of a possible medical condition. Arthritis support in cats is often grossly over-looked as
their symptoms are more subtle. They are not dogs. We don’t take them for a walk or a run each day and then notice they are falling behind or limping.
Again, because they are a species that is both predator and prey, they mask their symptoms and will not tell you they hurt. It is up to us to listen and
observe early warning signs!
Ingrid Johnson, CCBC on February 22, 2013
Our cats may seem like pampered indoor housecats, but on the inside they are still fierce predators! The greatest thrill for a cat is what is referred to as the “completion of the sequence of the kill.”
It is important when we are playing with our cats that we remember this sequence and try to mimic it the best we can. Whether playing with an individual toy or engaging in interactive play with you, it is important to allow them to capture their prey. Many people think it is funny to not let the cat catch the toy; this is actually very frustrating and quite frankly, not nice. If you play using a laser light toy, give your cat a tangible object to capture at the end of the play session, feed them a meal or offer treats, something that says you caught it!
When cats play they do not have to be flying through the air to be engaged and having a good time. Simply focus and eye contact on a toy, with ears perked up and erect tells you that your cat is engaged. (See photo)
Be sure to keep the toy moving away from your cat as most prey do not run towards their predators and bop them on the head! It is remarkable how many people stick the toy right in a cats face and wonder why they are not interested. Move the object in a tantalizing motion; let it be still, quiver, then bolt, as that is how prey moves.
Let your cat pounce on it a few times and then engage them in the stalk and chase again. Despite what great hunters they are, they do not always catch and kill their prey on the first try. Cats also like to torture the poor creature a little bit, letting it go and then recapturing it.
Try different toys! Cats are extremely prey specific; so much so that they will actually hunt the exact species of mouse or bird their mothers taught them to hunt if given the opportunity. If they do not play with one thing continue to try other toys and do not lose hope. Some cats enjoy feathers, others prefer tiny delicate lure objects, and others enjoy a big stuffed animal type toy. If you have multiple cats you will likely have multiple preferences.
Finally, end every play session with a satisfying kill!
Ingrid Johnson, CCBC
Certified Cat Behavior Consultant
Jane Ehrlich on November 27, 2012
In the beginning, I underestimated play. Interactive play. As an owner I knew it provided exercise (for me especially; my cat would watch while I chased—you know the drill). As time and experience as a behaviorist carried on, I learned of the many benefits that play offers for a cat’s health—not only physically, but mentally and emotionally as well. It can make all the difference to a cat’s complete well-being. Play is fun exercise.
We know that real play—not tossing the same ol’ toy until the cat looks at it, one day, and lies down, but real interactive action—improves muscle tone. It is hugely rewarding to see shoulder, back and leg muscles become defined in an out-of-condition cat that now has an exercise regime. Of course it is far healthier for an overweight cat to exercise more and eat less, and to dismiss, to my mind, the feline diet foods and eat less of the good stuff. I’ve also seen scrawny metamorphose to healthy bulk, because of increased leaping and chasing and dashing and pouncing.
Action motivates the couch-potato feline. Whether by illness, age or temperament, some cats don’t appreciate moving. If they could get you to forever peel kibble for them from a silver platter, while they imprint their body shape on velvet cushion, they would. The right toys and patience, not to mention encouragement, arouses my 13 year old from her cheerful lethargy. Her feline instincts blossom and her ‘inner hunter’ emerges. Our indoor kids are used to their measured, timed plates of food. Having them hunt for the odd treats and using puzzle-balls so they have to roll and paw and chase after their food reaps rewards in so many ways.
That mental stimulation: the hunting instinct, with its focus, stealth, run and attack, are not only sharpened but increased as the boredom that can come from being too domesticated in the home often enervates. Boredom saps the cat as much as the human. There’s nothing better for vanquishing it, besides a good dose of love, than making the cat move and dash…
...preferably with you. Bonding thing, play. Through play you learn to appreciate the graceful, powerful, beautiful animal she is, and she looks forward to you being there as a provider of wonderful excitement and fun. Many owners have seen their shy, under-confident little ones become friendly, assured furry beings in a household which is now less threatening. A cat must get used to a whole battery of new smells, spaces, people and paces when she comes to a new environment. Playing when she’s comfortable emerging from under the bed can work wonders when it comes to easing into her new life. Additionally it benefits the resident cats whose lives she intruded into. Increasing the exercise (separately, then gradually, together) for everyone helps to ease the situation.
Many times the dissent between members of the multi-cat household has been considerably eased by the introduction of several daily 20-minute play sessions. With individual cats, play helps them gain confidence in their new territories and families both human and feline, as well as re-channeling fear, frustration and anger into a more constructive energy outlet. When cats can play closer, and eventually together, they often learn better levels of tolerance and may even gain friendship.
Play is a huge stress and aggro-wrecker for various kinds of aggression, from redirected to territorial to intermale and others. So many behavioral issues have been calmed by introducing interactive play. The camaraderie, with joy, creates a happier outcome as the anxiety and the aggression is properly, healthily re-channeled.
Many a cat, having gone through some ordeal—gaining a new home, losing an owner or best cat-friend, or showing common symptoms of depression (decreased eating or grooming, hiding, increased sleeping, vocalizing)—has been able to adapt, even thrive, through structured and plentiful activity. I’ve observed cats clearly mourning for a loved fur-friend adjust far more rapidly to a life without him because he’s been distracted through action, and those endorphins whizzing around (no, it’s not scientific) mean he’s feeling good.
A play session before bedtime can help the cat sleep further into the night, and can help keep owners’ ankles from being attacked due to frustration at not being able to—you guessed it—play, hunt, catch! I’m willing to bet the quality of sleep is healthier, as well.
Exercise can also help cats who previously had access to the outdoors but now need to adapt to an indoor life. While different countries continue to stoke the controversy over which means a healthier life, the fact is more people are keeping their cats inside. To give them the best quality of that life possible it’s crucial not only to provide the territory, the ‘cat TV,’ the posts and the potted grass, but interactive play—lots of it—as well, to ensure those instincts are able to emerge and thrive! In my part of the world coyotes, irrigation pipes and sizzling temperatures take their toll. When advising clients to help their cats adapt to an indoor environment that kind of exercise (interactive play) is at top of the list. The results speak for themselves: they adapt—and adapt well.
Play’s fun! Even if you were out of the habit before pets came into your life, remember what it did for you when you were younger. You’re getting the same stimulation, the action that your cat is, together! You’re running around more. You’re learning this toy works and that one doesn’t, by trial and error, not to mention a bit of frustration on your part. You’re spending calories. You’re thoroughly enjoying yourself and your happier, healthier animal.
What gym could do that?
Jane Ehrlich is the owner of CATTITUDE Feline Behavior.
Ingrid Johnson, CCBC on November 06, 2012
Cats visit the veterinarian far less than our canine companions. This is largely due to the common problem that most pet parents cannot get their cat into a carrier; at least not easily. If we change our expectations of cats and train them from kitten hood the way we do with puppies it would certainly make things a lot easier. One of the first activities for families with a new puppy is an exciting ride in the car to pick out a leash and collar. We should do the same with our cats. We also take the puppy to different places, which means the car ride doesn’t always equal a trip to the veterinarian. We should do the same with our cats!
The following is a list of suggestions that can make getting your cat into their carrier easier and less stressful for all involved.
Leave the carrier out in the home. One of the most common complaints I hear from clients is that when they took the cat carrier out of the closet their cat ran under the bed. Well, of course it did! That cat hasn’t seen the carrier since the last time they were sick and didn’t feel well, had surgery, or last year when they went in for their annual visit and got poked and prodded. If the cat carrier sits under the desk in your home office or out on the sun porch 365 days a year than it becomes no more scary than the armchair in your living room. Doing this will essentially desensitize your cat to the carrier. When it is time to go somewhere, simply pick up your cat and bring them to the carrier. DO NOT bring the carrier to your cat.
Make the carrier inviting and cozy.When leaving the carrier out and about in the house make it a great place for your cat to hang out. Put a nice bed in there or an old T-shirt that smells of their favorite human. Place food and treats in the carrier for your cat to discover. Catnip and toys should be included too. Sliding around inside a slick, scary box that you were put in against your will is pretty unpleasant. Add to that fear and motion sickness and the potential for your cat to vomit and eliminate during travel is it also pretty gross. Having bedding in the carrier makes for a warm and cozy trip. If your cat should eliminate, at least there is something absorbent in there so they are not covered in it upon arrival to the clinic. There is nothing worse than starting off your cat’s annual physical with the stress of a bath! If you know your cat tends to make messes during travel then bring a change of bedding for the ride home. It is also nice to cover the carrier with a towel or specially designed carrier cover to help your cat not feel so vulnerable and exposed. See photo.
The type of carrier is important as well. While there are many varieties on the market a top loading carrier is really the easiest for most people to work with to achieve a successful outcome. A plastic, hard sided carrier with a removable top is ideal. This allows the vet staff to take your cat out with ease and even perform much of the examination in the comfort of the bottom of the carrier. Cats do better when the can stay inside the one place that smells like home or their favorite human, as it is the only familiar thing they have while at the vets office. Soft sided carriers do not allow for this technique. If your cat is challenging during an office visit, then soft sided carriers are definitely not preferred. The mesh sides give the cat too much to hold onto and it can be very difficult to remove them from the carrier. If your cat typically vomits or eliminates during travel then the soft sided carriers are also very messy as the contents can leak out onto your car seats, floorboards, and even onto you! Safety should also be considered, and a hard sided plastic carrier will keep your cat safe should you be in a car accident while traveling with your kitty.
Training can make all the difference. If you are truly motivated to make getting your cat into their carrier less of a struggle, then train them to go in on command! Clicker training is ideal for this to be successful. Simply leave the carrier out for your cat to explore, and leave both the front door and top loading door open. When they approach the carrier or perhaps jowl rub it, click and treat your cat. If they show any interest in sticking their head inside to sniff and check it out, click and treat that as well. One foot in the carrier, click and treat. Basically, you are rewarding any close approximations towards the end goal, which is all four feet in the carrier. Once you have achieved this then you only click in treat when the whole cat is in the carrier. Eventually you can add a verbal cue, such as carrier, crate, or box, etc. You can also play with your cat with the carrier completely open. Dangle a feather toy or piece of string and have them run thru the door and jump out the top. Never getting closed in, but having a good time in there will build trust.
Practice trips can help too. You can take your cat for a quick car ride just as you would your dog. The end result does not have to always equal a trip to the veterinarian which will help your cat not have such a negative association with that pesky travel box. This can be especially helpful if you have an adult cat or newly adopted cat that really hates the carrier. Try to reinforce that bad things do not always happen as a result of being in the carrier while simultaneously reinforcing that they always get to come home.
To start, put your cat in the carrier using one of the positive techniques described above and take them out to the car. Give them a very high value treat such as chicken deli meat and come back inside. The session is over. Nothing bad happened, in fact, chicken happened! You may need to repeat this for a few more sessions before moving on. You want to gradually build to taking a trip around the block, giving that high value reward and then returning safely home, no vet visit, just cruisin’, snackin’ and then home. I even have some clients that bring their cats along to the vet to pick up medications or food and the cat never comes out of the carrier. They just come along for a positive visit. Perhaps their human picks up some yummy treats or a catnip toy and they go home. No needles, no nail trims, no handling; just a positive trip to the vet.
Help them cope with the stress. Despite all of these suggestions, it is still no doubt stressful for most cats to have to go in their carrier which often leads to a vet visit. Feliway should be used to aid in minimizing your cat’s stress. Feliway is a synthetic feline facial pheromone that helps your cat feel comfort in a new or strange place, and helps them feel as if they have already marked this place before so it seems more familiar. Spray your cat carrier and car with Feliway at least 10 minutes prior to travel. You can also spray the carrier regularly while it is sitting out somewhere in your home.
Lavender and honeysuckle are also scents that cats can find calming and appealing. You should not allow your cat to come into direct contact with these essential oils however. Simply allow the fragrances to aerate the surrounding area so that your kitty has a smell that they may find calming.
Composure treats are calming treats that can be used in many different stressful situations. Giving your cat one or two treats prior to their vet visit may not only help with travel but the examination as well. Some clients have also found Rescue Remedy to be helpful.
Consider carrier storage. Keep in mind where you store your carrier. Is it buried in the garage covered in debris and filled with dead bugs and cobwebs? Is it up in the attic, buried under this years’ yard sale goods filled with dead bugs and cobwebs? Do you think your cat will find this filthy, weird box that is saturated in all of these unappealing smells inviting? Cats are clean and tidy animals, their carrier should be clean too. Not to mention, that carrier is your cats’ ticket to safety if you have an emergency. Take it from someone who has experienced a house fire!! Make sure you can easily access your cat’s carrier. It could be a situation of life or death!
The goal is to not make the cat carrier a big scary monster! Make it a cozy fun place to be!
Ingrid Johnson, CCBC
Certified Cat Behavior Consultant
Jane Ehrlich on August 21, 2012
While living in England, I often met vets and other cat lovers who maintained that outside cats lived healthier lives, even if they were shorter ones. One professor at the Royal Vet College recently admonished me, "Keeping cats indoors is both cruel and unnatural. It’s a pity the U.S. doesn’t feel that way."
The U.S., indeed, doesn’t. Our cats, say U.S. vets and behaviorists, should remain inside. Why the discrepancy? Tradition. Fewer outside risks, such as coyotes, bobcats, and presumably, outside dogs. Less traffic in smaller towns. The image of the Great Hunter stalking and racing through grasses and zooming up trees, their wild spirit and free nature unleashed, is both romantic and prevailing.
A cat’s independent nature is one of the traits we love best. Cats get lazy and obese if they stay indoors, don’t they? All that ranging territory! And that artificially enormous density hassle if there are several cats in the home—very stressful. Better a shorter, happier life, than a longer, less "normal" one, yes?
Keep them in.
Easy to say, I know. But the fact is, cats can have extremely happy, healthy, normal lives when they’re indoors. They’re avoiding the stress that comes from chronic threats (and the physical and psychological problems that derive from that), other animals from cats to coyotes, the cruelty of many people, poisonous plants, traffic, illnesses from infections to feline leukemia to rabies to FIV, being drowned (a problem in irrigation-pipe-ridden cities like mine), toasted, frozen, stolen, trapped, tortured… You know those arguments. Just part of the risk of being a pet? Of being a pet owner? Shouldn’t have to be.
One client recently explained, "Riley knows his limits when he’s in the front yard." The other neighborhood animals and people may not know theirs.
Would you let your young child roam like that? Didn’t think so.
I don’t want my cats to be one of those who were swiped by kids for "gang initiation" (I’ve known of three this month alone), by those selling their fur, shot or poisoned, or ripped up by car engines or tires. Clients have told me too many horror stories.
Keeping a cat safe by keeping him indoors without the tools to exercise his instincts would be cruel, indeed. This isn’t being suggested. I’ve seen as many cats for behavior issues who are outdoor cats as I have who live strictly inside. That being said, I have seen no data to support the idea that outdoor cats are emotionally healthier. I don’t know anyone in the field who has.
"Unnatural?" Nobody would sanction denying a cat’s natural hunting instinct.
The answer: enrich your cat’s everyday life by providing the stimulation and the action she both wants and needs.
Inside—-with an extensively enriched environment. With this, arguments for keeping cats outdoors simply do not stand up.
For scratching, climbing, increased territory, safety, plus that needed environmental control (that awareness of who is where, when, and what is going on), get six or seven-foot towers. Not those flimsy ones using fleece and cardboard, but sturdy, heavy ones, with hidey-hole, and easily accessible platforms. (Cheap towers are poorly-designed, with levels stacked so Mittens can’t easily jump from one to another.) Posts should be sisal-roped, not carpeted; rope gives a much better surface for scratching, is easy to replace, and it’s hard to explain to cats: "This carpet is fine to claw up, the one on the ground isn’t." Put them in front of windows, and hang bird and squirrel-feeders outside for the best cat TV. They are wonderful for climbing. Such towers also decrease the stress of that "density", of more than a couple of cats in a home.
Speaking of climbing and jumping - add shelves across walls and in hallways. For outdoor exercise, introduce your cat to a leash or a harness. Add a good selection of interactive toys—Cat Dancer and Da Bird are two favorites and several play sessions a day ensure a good measure of play and exercise and bonding. Ribbons, paper bags, boxes, cat tracks, catnip-filled socks, balled-up paper, non-toxic soap bubbles, you name it. Hide the toys and hide treats so your cat has to hunt. Rotate toys so your cat doesn’t get bored. Good play sessions, company to chase and play with, and watching the diet ensures no cat has to get lazy or obese. Hiding kibble behind cushions, under sofas, tucked around pillows, even scattering them across the floor means your cat works a little for their food.
Create a safe outdoor environment. A ‘catio’ built on a slim balcony, enclosures accessible by flap or window, or something more elaborate, with high channels running across the ceiling will provide fresh air and outside views your cat needs. Look online for patio makers, and create your own, with the help of a handy person. Add towers, plants (catnip? oat grasses?), and platforms for sunning. Those forever changing smells, views, and sounds mean massive stimulation in your cat’s life.
Interacting: I’m a big proponent of cats having cats. While some cats do need to be the "Only One", most would benefit from a feline companion. I‘m firmly convinced that cats and people have a richer relationship with each other when Fluffy’s inside. But you, human, aren’t always enough. Although you need to build in enough quality time with them. They’re healthier emotionally and physically when they have someone to be entertained by, to learn from, comforted by, and have fun with.
I’ve seen so many cats with symptoms of frustration, boredom, aggression and depression disappear once these enrichments were put in place.
They do live longer. That fact is not disputed. Much longer.
Peter Neville, renowned feline behaviorist, in his excerpt in "Handbook of Feline Medicine" by J. Willis and A. Wolf (Pergamon Press, Oxford): "The cat…accepts the benefits of living in the family and den w/o compromising its self-determining and independent behavior." Dr. Nick Dodman, head of the Dept., of the equally renowned, Tufts Behavior Vet School, keeps his cats inside having, by his own admission, lost several to horrific outside events. "It’s a lot safer to keep cats indoors. The average lifespan of an indoor cat is around 12-14 years (I’d say more), while outdoor cats are lucky to reach double digits (I’d say five or six!)."
They’re British, by the way. (Couldn’t resist.)